The importance of skin-to-skin with baby after delivery

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Researchers say a baby in skin-to-skin contact with the mother stimulates a specific part of the newborn’s brain. The baby is stimulated to move to mom’s breast, attach and begin feeding. This first step – getting sustenance – encourages physical development. A second step also happens.

The baby will open his or her eyes and first gaze upon mother. This encourages emotional and social development. Numerous other research studies have revealed scores of additional benefits. Briefly, here are some of them:

For Baby:

Better able to absorb and digest nutrients Better body temperature maintenance Cries less often Demonstrate improved weight gain Experience more stable heartbeat and breathing Higher blood oxygen levels Long-term benefits, such as improved brain development and function as well as parental attachment

More successful at breastfeeding immediately after birth Spend increased time in the very important deep sleep and quiet alert states Thermoregulation Stronger immune systems

For Mother:

Experience more positive breastfeeding Improved breast milk production Likely to have reduced postpartum bleeding and lower risk of postpartum depression

10 benefits of skin-to-skin contact

Here are the 10 leading benefits of skin-to-skin care:

1. Improvement in heart and lung function.

Babies go through a dramatic transition after birth as they prepare to take their first breaths of air outside the uterus. Those held skin-to-skin by their mothers tend to adapt sooner than those who are not. They also tend to have heart and breathing rates that are both more normal and more stable. This benefit holds true with premature infants as well as those born full-term. Perhaps the mother’s heart sounds and breathing patterns are familiar to the baby after spending time in utero.

2. Stabilization of body temperature.

During pregnancy, a mother maintains her baby’s temperature by sweating when hot and shivering and moving around when cold. After birth, babies have yet to acquire that same ability, so they can’t adjust their own body temperature. In fact, when it comes to keeping a vulnerable newborn warm, a mother’s body is better than an artificial warmer. One study that compared a nursery warmer, skin-to-skin care provided by the mother, and skin-to-skin care provided by the father found that the mom’s and the dad’s bodies were better than an electric warmer, with a mother’s body having a slight edge over a father’s body.

3. Regulation of blood sugar.

Babies use blood sugar for energy. Before birth, they get glucose through the placenta; after birth, they get it from their mother’s milk. If your baby’s glucose needs (e.g., energy needed to stay warm) exceed what he can get from his mother’s milk or from his liver, he will experience low blood sugar. This can cause him to feed poorly, which can exacerbate the problem. The risk of low blood sugar is higher for babies born to mothers with gestational diabetes due to higher insulin levels in their blood. As the number of mothers who develop gestational diabetes in pregnancy grows, the number of babies at risk for hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) also rises. Skin-to-skin care in the hours after birth can help stabilize your baby’s blood sugar levels.

4. Initiation of breastfeeding.

A fascinating video by UNICEF shows a newborn baby making his way toward his mother’s breast and latching on right after birth. “Every newborn,” the organization explains, “when placed on her mother’s abdomen, soon after birth, has the ability to find her mother’s breast all on her own and to decide when to take the first breastfeed.” An alert baby’s natural instincts can help him locate, latch on, and breastfeed—providing he is in close contact with his mother. Even many infants in the NICU can receive their first oral feeding at the breast.

5. Transfer of good bacteria.

The role of vaginal birth versus cesarean birth in transferring good bacteria from a mother to her newborn can’t be overstated. Passage through the birth canal allows the baby’s gut to be colonized with the bacteria in the mother’s vagina. Another way that babies get exposed to their mother’s bacteria is through skin-to-skin contact after birth. Bacteria in the vagina and on the skin are different from bacteria found in a hospital isolette, so early exposure helps babies develop a range of healthy bacteria. Skin-to-skin contact also supports early breastfeeding. Some of the complex sugars in human milk are indigestible in the newborn, but are the perfect food for a subspecies of bacteria that coat intestinal wall, boost digestive function, and provide protection from harmful bacteria (pathogens). Experts believe this these good bacteria may protect against allergic disease. It may even help to decolonize infants in the NICU who have Staphylococcus aureus in their nostrils.

6. Reduction in crying.

Studies show that babies who are held with skin-to-skin contact, particularly by their mother, are apt to cry less than those separated from their mothers. Some refer to a newborn’s cry as a “separation distress call,” noting that it is a mammalian reflex well-suited to calling the mother back to the young. During the newborn period, most babies cease crying once reunited with their mothers; thinking anthropologically about a baby’s cry, it seems understandable that a baby is less likely to cry when he feels the protection and security provided of his mother. Having the baby “room-in” with the mother at the hospital can help ensure that she is able to respond to her baby’s needs and provide frequent skin-to-skin contact.

7. Relief from pain.

Studies of babies experiencing clinical procedures show that babies experience less pain when held skin-to-skin during (or even immediately following) the procedure and that the duration of the pain is shortened by the close contact. Skin-to-skin contact is also more beneficial than oral glucose (sugar water, a traditional solution) in relieving pain during a heel stick for blood sampling. Skin-to-skin care provides better relief of pain symptoms the longer the skin-to-skin care lasts. A comparison of 30 minutes of “kangaroo care,” 15 minutes of “kangaroo care,” and incubator care found the greatest relief from the longer amount of skin-to-skin contact. A study currently underway is looking at whether skin-to-skin care benefits continue over multiple routine painful procedures necessary in the NICU; researchers have stated that they believe it will be effective and their work will lead to changes in greater implementation of skin-to-skin care in clinical practice.

8. Enhancement of mom-baby communication.

The time after a baby’s birth provides an opportunity for parents to learn about their baby’s behavior—signs of hunger, signs of fullness, signs of discomfort, and so on. Having the baby in close skin-to-skin contact helps to ensure that the mother will learn her baby’s signals sooner, improving communication and boosting maternal confidence as well as helping babies develop a sense of trust and security.

9. Easier transition from the womb.

Babies who are held skin-to-skin are more stable, physiologically, than their peers who are placed in a warmer after birth. They also demonstrate better neurobehavioral outcomes, as indicated by many of the factors that have been noted, including less crying, lower pain response, and better breastfeeding. In short, these babies experience less stress following birth as they begin to navigate the new world around them. Ruth Feldman, a professor of psychology and neuroscience at a university in Tel Aviv, notes that close contact in the days after birth is not an option but a need—for all mammals, not just human babies. “Every mammal,” she explains, “has to be cuddled and in close proximity with its mother in the first days and weeks of life.”

10. Boost in maternal-child bonding.

The traditional (albeit outdated) medical model for birth has encouraged mothers to put their newborn babies in warmers, and to have them transported to the nursery for monitoring by nursing staff while the mother rests in her room. Thankfully, this model is being replaced and mothers and babies are staying together from birth throughout the postpartum hospitalization, unless there is a medical condition that requires separation. When mothers and babies are separated after birth there are few opportunities to get to know each other. Touch is essential for mammalian survival, and skin-to-skin contact enables mothers and babies to use all of their senses in nurturing this new and vital relationship.

The Benefits of Skin to Skin

Babies need lots of skin-to-skin time with mom and dad in the hospital and at home.

Skin-to-skin time:

  • Calms you and baby.
  • Helps baby cry less.
  • Releases hormones that relieve stress and stabilize baby’s temperature, breathing rate, heart rate, and blood sugar.
  • Releases a hormone that lowers mom’s stress and promotes healing.
  • Helps your colostrum (the first milk that is full of nutrients that protect baby) to flow more easily.
  • Boosts baby’s immune system and protects against illness and disease.
  • Builds a strong brain through the smells, textures, and sounds the baby experiences while he’s on mom or dad’s chest.
  • Helps baby gain weight faster.
  • Helps mom breastfeed longer by building her milk supply and making her bond with baby stronger.
  • Lowers mom’s risk of postpartum mood disorder.
  • Creates connections between mom, dad, and baby that last a lifetime.
  • Gives mom a chance to rest or take a break.
Benefits of Kangaroo Care

Better Adaptability Outside the Womb

“Thermal regulation is a very common problem with infants, especially preterm babies,” says Malika D. Shah, M.D., assistant professor of pediatrics and neonatology at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. After all, when your baby was in the womb, she didn’t need to regulate her own temperature. Since your skin is the same temperature as the womb, Baby will find it easier to adapt to her post-birth environment.

Boosted Mental Development

Preemies who received kangaroo care had better brain functioning at 15 years old—comparable to that of adolescents born at term—than those who had been placed in incubators, says a Canadian study. By stabilizing heart rate, oxygenation, and improving sleep, the brain is better able to develop, Ludington says.

Promotion of Healthy Weight

One Cochrane Library review concluded that skin-to-skin contact dramatically increases newborn weight gain. “When babies are warm, they don’t need to use their energy to regulate their body temperature,” Ludington says. “They can use that energy to grow instead.” Plus, kangarooed babies enjoy increased breastfeeding rates, which can’t hurt healthy weight gain.

Easier Breastfeeding

“Newborns instinctively have a heightened sense of smell, so placing your baby skin-to-skin helps her seek out the nipple and begin breastfeeding,” says Katie Dunning, R.N., clinical coordinator of labor and delivery at Mount Sinai Hospital. In fact, moms who practiced kangaroo care were more likely to breastfeed exclusively and, on average, these moms breastfed three months longer than those who didn’t practice skin-to-skin care, says one study published in Neonatal Network.

Healthier Heart Rate and Respiration

Babies who suffered from respiratory distress and stayed in kangaroo care positions were relieved within 48 hours without respirators. One study concluded that heart rates for infants given kangaroo care were more regular than babies not given it.

Improved Immunity

“Premature [babies] seem to have poor immune systems—[they’re] susceptible to allergies, infections, feeding problems. Early skin-to-skin contact dramatically reduces these problems,” says Bergman.

Increased Milk Supply

When mom and baby are together, hormones that regulate lactation balance out, helping you produce more milk, Dr. Shah says.

Reduced Fetal Stress and Pain

Just 10 minutes of skin-to-skin contact reduces babies’ levels of the stress hormone cortisol, and increases levels of the “cuddle hormone” oxytocin, which stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system to make babies feel calm and safe, says Ludington. Her research, published in AACN Clinical Issues, shows that when preterm infants are held chest-to-chest, they react less to heel sticks, a minimally invasive way to draw blood, and a common source of pain among preemies.

Better Sleep for Baby

Less stress = better sleep. Preemies who were cradled skin-to-skin slept more deeply and woke up less often than those who slept in incubators, reported the journal Pediatrics.

Promotion of Bonding with Dad

“From their time in the womb, babies recognize their fathers’ voice,” says kangaroo care researcher Gene Cranston Anderson, Ph.D., R.N., professor emeritus of nursing at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. “Babies find skin-to-skin contact with dad calming, and it helps them bond.”

Prevention of Postpartum Depression

Various studies show that kangaroo care reduces postpartum depression. According to MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, activity in the mother’s adrenal axis is negatively influenced by childbirth, and skin-to-skin contact may reactivate the pathways to minimize the risk of depression. Plus, oxytocin released from skin-to-skin care decreases maternal anxiety and promotes attachment, further reducing the risk, says Dunning. susceptible to allergies, infections, feeding problems. Early skin-to-skin contact dramatically reduces these problems,” says Bergman.

Why is skin-to-skin important straight after birth?

Skin-to-skin helps your baby in many ways, too. She has just emerged from the dark, warm haven of your womb (uterus), into an unfamiliar world that has bright lights and new sounds. And it is cold by comparison. The experience must be something like stepping out of a warm bath. When you hold your baby skin-to-skin straight after the birth, it keeps her warm.

She can hear the comforting sound of your heartbeat, which she knows so well from her time in your womb. If you talk softly to her, she’ll recognise your voice. She will also be familiar with your partner’s voice. These sounds will reassure her that she’s all right. In addition, skin-to-skin with your newborn helps to regulate her breathing and heartbeat and keep her blood sugar at the right level. It also builds up her immunity to infections.

Skin-to-skin contact takes your baby through a natural pattern of behaviour that midwives and doctors look for in the first hour of life. It starts with that well-known sound of a baby’s first cry. When placed skin-to-skin on her mum’s chest, a newborn baby will then typically follow these stages:

  • relaxing and going still while listening to your heartbeat
  • opening her eyes and looking at you for the first time
  • moving her hands and mouth
  • crawling towards your breast
  • exploring your breast
  • suckling for the first time.
Psychologists say there are five types of love languages, but to newborn babies, only one really registers: physical touch.

“The skin-to-skin contact causes a release in oxytocin—known as the ‘love hormone’—in the mom. It helps the uterus contract, which reduces bleeding, and also warms up the mother’s body, which comforts the baby and results in less crying and lower rates of hypoglycemia,” Crowe explains.

The rush of oxytocin not only makes Mom a super warm and cozy place for a newborn to nestle, it also enables mothers and babies to recognize each other’s unique scent. In addition, it triggers the newborn’s instinct to find and latch on to the breast—something that everyone thinks is so easy and instinctual for both mother and child, that is, until the moment arrives and the awkwardness is all too real. A 2012 study published in Neonatology showed that 95 percent of mothers who experienced skin-to-skin contact with their newborns were breastfeeding exclusively 48 hours after delivery, and 90 percent continued exclusive breastfeeding six weeks later; yet another reminder of just how important our hormones are in determining how we function.

The importance of skin to skin with baby

The research on skin to skin Skin-to-skin contact:

  • stabilizes premature babies more quickly and reliably than being in an incubator
  • maintains the baby’s temperature better than an incubator (One study of twins made one too warm and the other too cold, and then placed both on the mother’s chest at the same time. The result: The too-cold baby warmed up while the other simultaneously cooled. Dads can’t do quite as well, but they will warm a baby who is too chilly.)
  • stabilizes a premature baby’s heart rate and breathing
  • helps prevent babies’ blood sugar from dropping too low
  • relieves pain when babies need to have blood tests or other procedures done
  • helps premature babies gain weight better
  • encourages increased milk production in breastfeeding mothers
  • helps non-latching babies or those with a range of breastfeeding problems breastfeed more effectively
  • reduces the amount babies cry
  • promotes stronger bonds between mothers and babies — and probably fathers too, but the research has been done on mothers (In one study, fewer babies were later abused or abandoned if they’d been cared for skin to skin in hospital.)
Benefits of Parent-Baby Skin-to-Skin Contact

Health BenefitsProvides Warmth Your skin acts as a radiant warmer and will keep your baby at the ideal body temperature.

Normalizes Breath Babies who are skin-to-skin with mom after birth breathe more easily and more rhythmically. This is thought to be because they are able to hear your heartbeat, lulling them into calmer breathing. They feel your breathing as well, which may help them to replicate your steady breathing.

Soothes Your Baby The comfort of being with mom leads to babies who cry less after the initial cries at birth. They have always been held, just inside the body. Having someone they recognize the sound and smell of is important for helping them feel secure.

Soothes Mom You’ve just given birth, an experience that often comes with a flood of intense sensations and emotions, such as elation, pain, wonder, fear, stress, and love. You may have had a relaxed and “easy” birth or a more dramatic, chaotic, or even scary birth. Physical contact with your baby can soothe you both and provide an opportunity for reflection, bonding, and relaxation.

Encourages Breast Milk Production Having a baby on the mother’s chest encourages increased release of the hormone oxytocin in the mother, which stimulates breast milk production and stronger uterine contractions. (These contractions are needed to deliver the placenta and shrink the uterus back down to normal size).

Reduces Maternal Anxiety Studies have shown that skin-to-skin time may reduce maternal anxiety as well as the incidence and severity of postpartum depression. Additionally, mothers who participate in skin-to-skin care often report lower stress levels and more positive feelings and confidence about motherhood.

Stabilizes Your Baby’s Vital Signs All of the above benefits of skin-to-skin care add up to a baby who is more likely to have stable vital signs, including optimal body temperature and heart rate. A happy, relaxed baby is usually a healthy baby in terms of transitioning from the womb. Touch is known to provide calming effects—and even reduce pain—and both you and your baby will enjoy this benefit.

The Benefits of Skin to Skin, and How to Do It

A 2012 literature review of 34 randomized controlled trials of skin-to-skin reveals why the recommendation makes so much sense. Researchers found that the contact of flesh helped establish and sustain breastfeeding, maintain the baby’s body temperature, stabilize their blood sugar, shorten the time they spent crying, and in the case of premature babies, helped stabilize their heart rate, all with no other negative side effects. Newer research shows skin-to-skin may promote healthy brain development in babies and reduce the risk of postpartum depression in parents.

Temperature Regulation One of the most immediate effects of skin-to-skin is helping babies stabilize their body temperature. At birth, when babies are exposed to air for the first time, often in a cold environment like a delivery room, their temperature drops an average of 2-4 degrees celsius. But “Mom’s body has a unique ability, when an infant is placed on the mom’s chest, to regulate her body temperature to keep her baby warm,” Campbell says.

Breastfeeding Researchers believe this has to do with the heightened alertness and sense of smell newborns have when they’re born. They’re hardwired to find their mother’s nipple, and when there are no clothes between them the mother’s skin to her body temperature and the smell of her nipple, prompts infants to seek out the nipple and establish feeding routines.

Crying Unsurprisingly, babies who are snuggled against a parent’s chest also tend to be calmer. A small (30 infant) 1995 randomized controlled trial found that when babies were held skin-to-skin soon after birth, only 14% of them spent more than one of their first 90 minutes of life crying. But when babies were cared for in cots, 93% cried for more than a minute. Researchers theorized that infants, much like other mammals, instinctually recognize separation from their mother and that crying is a “genetically encoded reaction to separation” that serves as a way to “restore proximity to the mother.”

Skin to Skin After a C-Section When it comes to routine cesarean sections, “A baby can certainly still do skin to skin,” Campbell says. This may happen in the operating room, or shortly after in a recovery room. Research on skin-to-skin after c-sections has shown that it lowers moms’ pain levels and makes them feel more satisfied and less anxious, and is even associated with the use of less medication. However, when a parent undergoing a c-section is unable to do skin-to-skin due to nausea or rare general anesthetic, some hospitals will let the other parent have skin-to-skin time, Campbell says.

Skin-to-skin contact

After a normal vaginal birth, your newborn baby will be put on your chest for skin-to-skin contact. Your baby needs sleep and food, and they need to feel secure and warm, so they need to feel your skin. Doing this simple thing:

  • reduces newborn crying
  • helps start and sustain breastfeeding
  • helps maintain your baby’s body temperature
  • After this first contact, they will be weighed, measured and observed to make sure they are healthy.

If you have a caesarean section, ask your midwife to make sure your baby has skin-to-skin contact with you as early as possible. It may be possible for you or your partner to hold your baby-skin-to skin in theatre and in recovery.

Skin-to-skin contact is a key part of the UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative standards.

It helps the baby to adjust to life outside the womb and supports mothers to initiate breastfeeding and develop close, loving relationships with their baby.

What is skin-to-skin contact?

Skin-to-skin contact is usually referred to as the practice where a baby is dried and laid directly on the mother’s bare chest after birth, both of them covered in a warm blanket and left for at least an hour or until after the first feed. Skin-to-skin contact can also take place any time a baby needs comforting or calming and can help boost a mother’s milk supply. Skin-to-skin contact is also vital in neonatal units, where it is often known as ‘kangaroo care’. Here, it helps parents bond with their baby and supports better physical and developmental outcomes for the baby.

Why is skin-to-skin contact important?

There is a growing body of evidence that skin-to-skin contact after the birth helps babies and their mothers. The practice:

  • calms and relaxes both mother and baby -regulates the baby’s heart rate and breathing, helping them to better adapt to life outside the womb
  • stimulates digestion and an interest in feeding -regulates temperature
  • enables colonisation of the baby’s skin with the mother’s friendly bacteria, thus providing protection against infection
  • stimulates the release of hormones to support breastfeeding and mothering.

Skin-to-skin contact also provides benefits for babies in the neonatal unit, in that it:

  • improves oxygen saturation
  • reduces cortisol (stress) levels, particularly following painful procedures
  • encourages pre-feeding behavior
  • assists with growth -may reduce hospital stay
  • improves milk volume if the mother expresses following a period of skin-to-skin contact, with the expressed milk containing the most up-to-date antibodies.

What happens during skin-to-skin contact?

When a mother holds her baby in skin-to-skin contact after birth, it initiates strong instinctive behaviours in both. The mother will experience a surge of maternal hormones and begin to smell, stroke and engage with her baby. Babies’ instincts after birth will drive them to follow a unique process, which if left uninterrupted will result in them having a first breastfeed. If they are enabled to familiarise themselves with their mother’s breast and achieve self-attachment, it is very likely that they will recall this at subsequent feeds, resulting in fewer breastfeeding problems.

After birth, babies who are placed skin-to-skin on their mother’s chest will:

-briefly cry a very distinctive birth cry

-enter a stage of relaxation where they display very little movement as they recover from the birth

-start to wake up, opening their eyes and showing some response to their mother’s voice

-begin to make small movements of the arms, shoulders and head; as these movements increase, the baby will draw up their knees and appear to move or crawl towards the breast

-often rest once they have found the breast (this can often be mistaken as the baby not being hungry or not wanting to feed)

-begin to familiarize with the breast after a period of rest, perhaps by nuzzling, smelling and licking around the area (this familiarisation period can last for some time and is important, so should not be rushed – try to remain patient and allow the baby to work out how to —best attach themselves)

-self-attach and begin to feed (it may be that mother and baby need a little help with positioning at this stage)

-come off the breast once they have had a chance to suckle for a period of time. Following this, often both mother and baby will fall asleep.

Most term healthy babies will follow this process, providing it is not interrupted by anything, for example taking the baby away to weigh or the mother going for a shower. Interrupting the process before the baby has completed this sequence or trying to hurry them through the stages may lead to problems at subsequent breastfeeds. If the mother has been given a lot of analgesia during labour, the baby may be drowsy and this process can take longer.

Skin-to-skin contact in the Baby Friendly standards

The Baby Friendly standards require that skin-to-skin contact is valued and supported in hospitals.

Maternity units are required to ensure that:

  • all mothers have skin-to-skin contact with their baby after birth, at least until after the first feed and for as long as they wish
  • all mothers are encouraged to offer the first feed in skin contact when the baby shows signs of readiness to feed
  • mothers and babies who are unable to have skin contact immediately after birth are encouraged to commence skin contact as soon as they are able, whenever or wherever that may be. Neonatal units are required to ensure that:
  • parents have a conversation with an appropriate member of staff as soon as possible about the importance of touch, comfort and communication for their baby’s health and development
  • parents are actively encouraged to provide comfort and emotional support for their baby, including prolonged skin contact, comforting touch and responsiveness to their baby’s behavioural cues
  • mothers receive care that supports the transition to breastfeeding, including the use of skin-to-skin contact to encourage instinctive feeding behaviour.

Safety considerations

Vigilance of the baby’s well-being is a fundamental part of postnatal care immediately following and in the first few hours after birth. For this reason, normal observations of the baby’s temperature, breathing, colour and tone should continue throughout the period of skin-to-skin contact in the same way as would occur if the baby were in a cot (this includes calculation of the Apgar score at 1, 5 and 10 minutes following birth). Care should always be taken to ensure that the baby is kept warm. Observations should also be made of the mother, with prompt removal of the baby if the health of either gives rise to concern.

Staff should have a conversation with the mother and her companion about the importance of recognising changes in the baby’s colour or tone and the need to alert staff immediately if they are concerned.

It is important to ensure that the baby cannot fall on to the floor or become trapped in bedding or by the mother’s body. Mothers should be encouraged to be in a semi-recumbent position to hold and feed their baby. Particular care should be taken with the position of the baby, ensuring the head is supported so the infant’s airway does not become obstructed

Notes – Mothers

  • Observations of the mother’s vital signs and level of consciousness should be continued throughout the period of skin-to-skin contact. Mothers may be very tired following birth and so may need constant support and supervision to observe changes in their baby’s condition or to reposition their baby when needed.
  • Many mothers can continue to hold their baby in skin-to-skin contact during perineal suturing, providing they have adequate pain relief. However, a mother who is in pain may not be able to hold her baby safely. Babies should not be in skin-to-skin contact with their mothers when they are receiving Entonox or other analgesics that impact consciousness.

Notes – Babies

  • All babies should be routinely monitored whilst in skin-to-skin contact with mother or father. The following observations should be included.
  • Checking that the baby’s position is such that a clear airway is maintained – observe respiratory rate and chest movement. Listen for unusual breathing sounds or absence of noise from the baby.
  • Colour – the baby should be assessed by looking at the whole of the baby’s body, as the limbs can often be discoloured first. Subtle changes to colour indicate changes in the baby’s condition.
  • Tone – the baby should have a good tone and not be limp or unresponsive.
  • Temperature – ensure the baby is kept warm during skin contact.
  • Always listen to parents and respond immediately to any concerns raised
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Why is skin-to-skin important straight after birth?

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Psychologists say there are five types of love languages, but to newborn babies, only one really registers: physical touch.

https://www.stanfordchildrens.org/en/health-topics/magazine/give-em-some-skin

The importance of skin to skin with baby

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Benefits of Parent-Baby Skin-to-Skin Contact

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Skin-to-skin contact

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Skin-to-skin contact is a key part of the UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative standards.

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